Carolyn Drumsta '10, environmental studies and biology.
His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager.
These topics include a history of gender equity in sports and Title IX, b gender equity in sport governance, c gender equity issues in athletics, d gender equity, sports participation, and Title IX, e and gender equity in coed sports.
For each topic, the author presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic. Further, the author presents information about the importance of each topic to gender equity in sports, plus any relevant social, ethical, or legal concerns.
In recorded history, one can find many accounts of where women faced issues of equity in relationships, their career, education, and athletic opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the history that surrounds the issues of gender equity in sport, what actions have been taken to provide equal opportunity for women in sports, the current issues facing women in sports today, the research surrounding the issues pertaining to gender equity in sport, and also to discuss the findings and present recommendations for further research in this area.
Title IX was initially enacted by the federal government to ensure equal educational opportunities for males and females, but eventually it was used to create equal opportunities for women in sports.
Title IX was monumental in increasing the participation of women in sports, but women still face scrutiny and stereotyping because of social norms, which define women as being fragile, less capable, and passive. Furthermore, sport has always been seen as a masculinized entity, and therefore, women are perceived as intruding on male boundaries.
Recent and past research has shown that having a more balanced male and female board in sports governance contributes to a better work environment.
While Title IX has created more opportunities in sport for women, it has done very little to reduce the stereotypical image of women in sports. Further, it has done little to help establish equal opportunities in sport governance and the pressures women face in a hegemonic masculinized sport organization.
It is necessary to reduce the stereotype that women are not equal to men in sports and sports governance because although women are mostly given an equal opportunity, they are still less likely to participate in sports or to be given equal opportunities in sports governance because of gender discrimination and gender stereotypes.
Exceptions to Title IX include educational institutions that traditionally admit members of only one sex, institutions that train individuals for military service, and institutions whose compliance with Title IX would violate religious beliefs Furthermore, it did not specifically refer to athletic opportunities when it was first developed; however, subsequent interpretations and court cases set the tone that opportunities in athletics are also to be upheld to this standard The Three Part Test, issued by the U.
Office of Civil Rights This test 11 presents the following key points: Are participation opportunities substantially proportionate to enrollment?
Is there a history and continuing practice of program expansion for the underrepresented sex? Is the institution fully and effectively accommodating the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex?
Also, as it relates to sports participation, the general rule in both contact and non-contact sports is that when only one team is available, both sexes must be allowed to try out for and play on the team. Further, the HEW regulations under Title IX permit an athletic department that receives federal funds to maintain separate teams for each sex if selection for the teams is based on competitive skill or if the sport involved is a contact sport Gender Equity in Sport Governance As was previously mentioned, women face gender equity issues as athletes and as sport governance officials.
There is a lack of women in leadership positions in sport due to the fact that sport is a gendered institution and that all processes operate within a hegemonic masculine norm 3.
Furthermore, sport institutions have institutionalized masculinity as the operating principle within sport, which identifies male activity as privileged, and reinforcing masculinity and masculine behavior as acceptable leadership qualities required in sport 3.
Therefore, it is said that gender inequality has become an institutionalized practice within sport organizations.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
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