Literature review of the topic brand marketing essay

This lets companies acquire customers, while also maintaining customer loyalty that results in repeat custom for the firm.

Literature review of the topic brand marketing essay

This paper proposes some theoretical concepts through which the effects of these stimuli may be understood. Empirical research from consumer behavior and psychology is reviewed.

Together, the theoretical and empirical components of the paper provide guidance for future research. This trend towards the increasing depiction of sexually-oriented themes in advertising is evident upon even the most casual inspection of print and broadcast media.

In general, advertising copywriters use nudity, romantic themes, or suggestiveness to draw attention to specific advertisements and their sponsoring products.

In the marketplace of today, the use of such explicitly or implicitly sexually-oriented ads seems to be especially popular for parity products that must compete intensely for consumers' attention Danielenko, The use of sex in advertising has important social, managerial, and public policy implications.

These implications hinge, of course, on the desired portrayal of women in contemporary society, the conditions under which advertising and marketing managers should and should not use sexually-oriented stimuli in communicating with consumers vis-a-vis competitors, and the impact of such communications on certain consumer groups e.

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Other broad issues, such as the overall image of corporate advertising and consumers' rights in avoiding media content which they deem offensive also must be considered when sexually-oriented advertising is evaluated.

But despite the importance of sexually-oriented advertising and its increased use, little research has been directed towards measuring the impact of such advertisements on consumer awareness, attitudes, or behavior. And, perhaps more importantly, little thought seems to have been given to those theoretical concepts which may be useful in understanding the effectiveness of sexually-oriented ads.

Most of the available information takes the "Look Ma--No Theory" approach that has recently been discussed by Jacoby By and large, there has been no effort to rely on theory to suggest those variables which are most important in understanding consumer response to sexually-oriented advertising stimuli; and the differences in individual psychological make-up which can cause opposite consumer reactions to the same ad are not well delineated at the current time.

As a result of these shortcomings, very little is known about sex in advertising and how it may be expected to interact with other variables to arouse, motivate, offend, or otherwise affect target and non-target consumer populations. The purpose of this paper is to help fill the void caused by a lack of theoretical and empirical attention to the area of sexually-oriented advertising communications.

First, the paper reviews several potentially useful theoretical bases for predicting and understanding the effect of sexy advertisements. In this discussion, emphasis is placed on 1 the hypothesized differential effects of a sexually-oriented advertisement versus a non-sexual theme and 2 why these differences might be expected to occur.

Secondly, this article summarizes the limited amount of research from marketing and consumer behavior as well as from clinical and social psychology which uses sexually-oriented objects as stimuli. Lastly, the paper discusses some important directions for future research. Arousal does not seem to be well understood in a consumer context, and little consumer research has been directed towards uncovering its specific role in the processing of brand-related information by consumers.

Its importance, however, has been documented by direct attention in at least two comprehensive models of consumer behavior Hansen, ; Howard, and in the area of consumer novelty seeking behavior Venkatesan, Arousal, usually defined as the degree of tension in the body, is a physiological state which gives rise to attention and search in the consumer decision-making process Howard,p.

In the context of sexually-oriented stimuli, arousal caused by such stimuli can be thought to relate directly to attention toward the particular advertisement and may be mediated by the consumers' innate motivational state.

Sexually-oriented ads may also relate to consumer reaction through stimulus ambiguity since an unexpected or surprise stimulus one form of ambiguity as defined by Howard and Sheth i, p. In this way, arousal can be thought to be a form of consumer motivation though its tension-producing effects are not well delineated.

The impact of environmental stimulation by a sexually-oriented advertisement may be illustrated by an equilibrium" model in which a consumer is initially at an equilibrium with regard to sex.

When a sensory input an erotic ad, for example is presented to the consumer, a disequilibrium state may be created since the incoming cue is associated with an innate motive sexual activity. This enhanced level of information processing then will interact with the consumer's stable value system to produce an affective evaluation of the ad and, consequently, the product being advertised.

The overall product image can thus be affected by the interaction of the type of stimulus object and the context in which the stimulus is presented with thc structure of values and beliefs held by the receiver of the advertising message.

Of major importance in this process is the increased cognitive activity produced by the disequilibrium amount of arousal.

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A non-sexually-oriented stimulus may not have caused the same degree of arousal. The primary conclusion that must be drawn from arousal theory is that, relative to a non-sexy ad, a sexually-oriented communication will perhaps significantly increase the level of consumer attention to the ad.

However, there is no reason to believe that increased attention will positively affect consumer attitudes and purchase behavior.

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On the contrary, it is very likely that for consumer groups with certain sets of values, the image of the brand may deteriorate.Starting from project management to marketing essays- these guys have them all.

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Literature review on Sponsorship Module title: Integrated Marketing Communication Kingston University, Faculty of Business and Law Academic Year / Introduction Sponsorship as a communication form can contribute significantly to a company by building brand awareness and heighten consumer attitudes (Cornwell et al., ).

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Literature review of the topic brand marketing essay

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