Acta Materialia 58 The elastic—plastic deformation of crystalline aggregates depends on the direction of loading, i. This phenomenon is due to the anisotropy of the elastic tensor and to the orientation dependence of the activation of the crystallographic deformation mechanisms dislocations, twins, martensitic transformations. A consequence of crystalline anisotropy is that the associated mechanical phenomena such as shape change, crystallographic texture, strength, strain hardening, deformation-induced surface roughening and damage are also orientation dependent.
Diffusion Maintaining the type and number of phases e. Alteration of phase composition e.
Atoms are displaced by random walk. The displacement of a given atom, d, is not linear in time t as would be for a straight trajectory but is proportional to the square root of time, due to the tortuous path: This time-dependence of the rate at which the reaction phase transformation occurs is what is meant by the term reaction kinetics.
D is called a constant because it does not depend on time, but it depends on temperature as we have seen in Ch. Diffusion occurs faster at high temperatures. Phase transformation requires two processes: Nucleation involves the formation of very small particles, or nuclei e.
This is similar to rain happening when water molecules condensed around dust particles. During growth, the nuclei grow in size at the expense of the surrounding material.
The kinetic behavior often has the S-shape form of Fig. The nucleation phase is seen as an incubation period, where nothing seems to happen.
This is usually the case in practice, so that equilibrium microstructures are seldom obtained. This means that the transformations are delayed e. We then need to know the effect of time on phase transformations.
When cooling proceeds below the eutectoid temperature oC nucleation of pearlite starts.
The S-shaped curves fraction of pearlite vs. For these diagrams to apply, one needs to cool the material quickly to a given temperature To before the transformation occurs, and keep it at that temperature over time. The horizontal line that indicates constant temperature To intercepts the TTT curves on the left beginning of the transformation and the right end of the transformation ; thus one can read from the diagrams when the transformation occurs.
The formation of pearlite shown in fig. At low temperatures, nucleation occurs fast and grain growth is reduced since it occurs by diffusion, which is hindered at low temperatures.
This reduced grain growth leads to fine-grained microstructure fine pearlite. At higher temperatures, diffusion allows for larger grain growth, thus leading to coarse pearlite.
At lower temperatures nucleation starts to become slower, and a new phase is formed, bainite. Since diffusion is low at low temperatures, this phase has a very fine microscopic microstructure.
Spheroidite is a coarse phase that forms at temperatures close to the eutectoid temperature. The relatively high temperatures caused a slow nucleation but enhances the growth of the nuclei leading to large grains.
A very important structure is martensite, which forms when cooling austenite very fast quenching to below a maximum temperature that is required for the transformation. It forms nearly instantaneously when the required low temperature is reached; since no thermal activation is needed, this is called an athermal transformation.
Martensite is a different phase, a body-centered tetragonal BCT structure with interstitial C atoms. Martensite is metastable and decomposes into ferrite and pearlite but this is extremely slow and not noticeable at room temperature. In the examples, we used an eutectoid composition.Fluid flow Further reading References 6 Interfacialphenomena, metals processingand properties K MUKAI, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan Introduction Fundamentals of the interface MARTINDALE'S CALCULATORS ON-LINE CENTER ENGINEERING CENTER MATERIALS ENGINEERING & MATERIALS SCIENCE CENTER (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, and where Applicable includes: Courses, Manuals.
Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Biosorption, using biomaterials such as bacteria, fungi, yeast and algae, is regarded as a cost-effective biotechnology for the treatment of high volume and low concentration complex wastewaters containing heavy metal(s) in the order of 1 to mg/L.